Autoprefixer Cult Of Martians

PostCSS plugin to parse CSS and add vendor prefixes to CSS rules using values from Can I Use. It is recommended by Google and used in Twitter and Alibaba.

Write your CSS rules without vendor prefixes (in fact, forget about them entirely):

::placeholder {
  color: gray;
}

.image {
  background-image: url([email protected]);
}
@media (min-resolution: 2dppx) {
  .image {
    background-image: url([email protected]);
  }
}

Autoprefixer will use the data based on current browser popularity and property support to apply prefixes for you. You can try the interactive demo of Autoprefixer.

::-moz-placeholder {
  color: gray;
}
::placeholder {
  color: gray;
}

.image {
  background-image: url([email protected]);
}
@media (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),
       (min-resolution: 2dppx) {
  .image {
    background-image: url([email protected]);
  }
}

Twitter account for news and releases: @autoprefixer.

Sponsored by Evil Martians

Contents

Browsers

Autoprefixer uses Browserslist, so you can specify the browsers you want to target in your project with queries like > 5% (see Best Practices).

The best way to provide browsers is a .browserslistrc file in your project root, or by adding a browserslist key to your package.json.

We recommend the use of these options over passing options to Autoprefixer so that the config can be shared with other tools such as babel-preset-env and Stylelint.

See Browserslist docs for queries, browser names, config format, and defaults.

FAQ

Does Autoprefixer polyfill Grid Layout for IE?

Autoprefixer can be used to translate modern CSS Grid syntax into IE 10 and IE 11 syntax, but this polyfill will not work in 100% of cases. This is why it is disabled by default.

First, you need to enable Grid prefixes by using either the grid: "autoplace" option or the /* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */ control comment. Also you can use environment variable to enable Grid: AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace npm build.

Second, you need to test every fix with Grid in IE. It is not an enable and forget feature, but it is still very useful. Financial Times and Yandex use it in production.

Third, there is only very limited auto placement support. Read the Grid Autoplacement support in IE section for more details.

Fourth, if you are not using the autoplacement feature, the best way to use Autoprefixer is by using grid-template or grid-template-areas.

.page {
  display: grid;
  grid-gap: 33px;
  grid-template:
    "head head  head" 1fr
    "nav  main  main" minmax(100px, 1fr)
    "nav  foot  foot" 2fr /
    1fr   100px 1fr;
}
.page__head {
  grid-area: head;
}
.page__nav {
  grid-area: nav;
}
.page__main {
  grid-area: main;
}
.page__footer {
  grid-area: foot;
}

See also:

Does it add polyfills?

No. Autoprefixer only adds prefixes.

Most new CSS features will require client side JavaScript to handle a new behavior correctly.

Depending on what you consider to be a “polyfill”, you can take a look at some other tools and libraries. If you are just looking for syntax sugar, you might take a look at:

  • postcss-preset-env is a plugins preset with polyfills and Autoprefixer to write future CSS today.
  • Oldie, a PostCSS plugin that handles some IE hacks (opacity, rgba, etc).
  • postcss-flexbugs-fixes, a PostCSS plugin to fix flexbox issues.

Why doesn’t Autoprefixer add prefixes to border-radius?

Developers are often surprised by how few prefixes are required today. If Autoprefixer doesn’t add prefixes to your CSS, check if they’re still required on Can I Use.

Why does Autoprefixer use unprefixed properties in @-webkit-keyframes?

Browser teams can remove some prefixes before others, so we try to use all combinations of prefixed/unprefixed values.

How to work with legacy -webkit- only code?

Autoprefixer needs unprefixed property to add prefixes. So if you only wrote -webkit-gradient without W3C’s gradient, Autoprefixer will not add other prefixes.

But PostCSS has plugins to convert CSS to unprefixed state. Use postcss-unprefix before Autoprefixer.

Does Autoprefixer add -epub- prefix?

No, Autoprefixer works only with browsers prefixes from Can I Use. But you can use postcss-epub for prefixing ePub3 properties.

Why doesn’t Autoprefixer transform generic font-family system-ui?

system-ui is technically not a prefix and the transformation is not future-proof. You can use postcss-font-family-system-ui to transform system-ui to a practical font-family list.

Usage

Gulp

In Gulp you can use gulp-postcss with autoprefixer npm package.

gulp.task('autoprefixer', () => {
  const autoprefixer = require('autoprefixer')
  const sourcemaps = require('gulp-sourcemaps')
  const postcss = require('gulp-postcss')

  return gulp.src('./src/*.css')
    .pipe(sourcemaps.init())
    .pipe(postcss([ autoprefixer() ]))
    .pipe(sourcemaps.write('.'))
    .pipe(gulp.dest('./dest'))
})

With gulp-postcss you also can combine Autoprefixer with other PostCSS plugins.

Webpack

In webpack you can use postcss-loader with autoprefixer and other PostCSS plugins.

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/,
        use: ["style-loader", "css-loader", "postcss-loader"]
      }
    ]
  }
}

And create a postcss.config.js with:

module.exports = {
  plugins: [
    require('autoprefixer')
  ]
}

CSS-in-JS

The best way to use PostCSS with CSS-in-JS is astroturf. Add its loader to your webpack.config.js:

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/,
        use: ['style-loader', 'postcss-loader'],
      },
      {
        test: /\.jsx?$/,
        use: ['babel-loader', 'astroturf/loader'],
      }
    ]
  }
}

Then create postcss.config.js:

module.exports = {
  plugins: [
    require('autoprefixer')
  ]
}

CLI

You can use the postcss-cli to run Autoprefixer from CLI:

npm install postcss postcss-cli autoprefixer
npx postcss *.css --use autoprefixer -d build/

See postcss -h for help.

Other Build Tools

Preprocessors

GUI Tools

JavaScript

You can use Autoprefixer with PostCSS in your Node.js application or if you want to develop an Autoprefixer plugin for a new environment.

const autoprefixer = require('autoprefixer')
const postcss = require('postcss')

postcss([ autoprefixer ]).process(css).then(result => {
  result.warnings().forEach(warn => {
    console.warn(warn.toString())
  })
  console.log(result.css)
})

There is also a standalone build for the browser or for a non-Node.js runtime.

You can use html-autoprefixer to process HTML with inlined CSS.

Text Editors and IDE

Autoprefixer should be used in assets build tools. Text editor plugins are not a good solution, because prefixes decrease code readability and you will need to change values in all prefixed properties.

I recommend you to learn how to use build tools like Parcel. They work much better and will open you a whole new world of useful plugins and automation.

If you can’t move to a build tool, you can use text editor plugins:

Warnings

Autoprefixer uses the PostCSS warning API to warn about really important problems in your CSS:

  • Old direction syntax in gradients.
  • Old unprefixed display: box instead of display: flex by latest specification version.

You can get warnings from result.warnings():

result.warnings().forEach(warn => {
  console.warn(warn.toString())
})

Every Autoprefixer runner should display these warnings.

Disabling

Prefixes

Autoprefixer was designed to have no interface – it just works. If you need some browser specific hack just write a prefixed property after the unprefixed one.

a {
  transform: scale(0.5);
  -moz-transform: scale(0.6);
}

If some prefixes were generated incorrectly, please create an issue on GitHub.

Features

You can use these plugin options to control some of Autoprefixer’s features.

  • grid: "autoplace" will enable -ms- prefixes for Grid Layout including some limited autoplacement support.
  • supports: false will disable @supports parameters prefixing.
  • flexbox: false will disable flexbox properties prefixing. Or flexbox: "no-2009" will add prefixes only for final and IE versions of specification.
  • remove: false will disable cleaning outdated prefixes.

You should set them inside the plugin like so:

autoprefixer({ grid: 'autoplace' })

Control Comments

If you do not need Autoprefixer in some part of your CSS, you can use control comments to disable Autoprefixer.

.a {
  transition: 1s; /* will be prefixed */
}

.b {
  /* autoprefixer: off */
  transition: 1s; /* will not be prefixed */
}

.c {
  /* autoprefixer: ignore next */
  transition: 1s; /* will not be prefixed */
  mask: url(image.png); /* will be prefixed */
}

There are three types of control comments:

  • /* autoprefixer: (on|off) */: enable/disable all Autoprefixer translations for the whole block both before and after the comment.
  • /* autoprefixer: ignore next */: disable Autoprefixer only for the next property or next rule selector or at-rule parameters (but not rule/at‑rule body).
  • /* autoprefixer grid: (autoplace|no-autoplace|off) */: control how Autoprefixer handles grid translations for the whole block:
    • autoplace: enable grid translations with autoplacement support.
    • no-autoplace: enable grid translations with autoplacement support disabled (alias for deprecated value on).
    • off: disable all grid translations.

You can also use comments recursively:

/* autoprefixer: off */
@supports (transition: all) {
  /* autoprefixer: on */
  a {
    /* autoprefixer: off */
  }
}

Note that comments that disable the whole block should not be featured in the same block twice:

/* How not to use block level control comments */

.do-not-do-this {
  /* autoprefixer: off */
  transition: 1s;
  /* autoprefixer: on */
  transform: rotate(20deg);
}

Options

Function autoprefixer(options) returns a new PostCSS plugin. See PostCSS API for plugin usage documentation.

autoprefixer({ cascade: false })

Available options are:

  • env (string): environment for Browserslist.
  • cascade (boolean): should Autoprefixer use Visual Cascade, if CSS is uncompressed. Default: true
  • add (boolean): should Autoprefixer add prefixes. Default is true.
  • remove (boolean): should Autoprefixer [remove outdated] prefixes. Default is true.
  • supports (boolean): should Autoprefixer add prefixes for @supports parameters. Default is true.
  • flexbox (boolean|string): should Autoprefixer add prefixes for flexbox properties. With "no-2009" value Autoprefixer will add prefixes only for final and IE 10 versions of specification. Default is true.
  • grid (false|"autoplace"|"no-autoplace"): should Autoprefixer add IE 10-11 prefixes for Grid Layout properties?
    • false (default): prevent Autoprefixer from outputting CSS Grid translations.
    • "autoplace": enable Autoprefixer grid translations and include autoplacement support. You can also use /* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */ in your CSS.
    • "no-autoplace": enable Autoprefixer grid translations but exclude autoplacement support. You can also use /* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */ in your CSS. (alias for the deprecated true value)
  • stats (object): custom usage statistics for > 10% in my stats browsers query.
  • overrideBrowserslist (array): list of queries for target browsers. Try to not use it. The best practice is to use .browserslistrc config or browserslist key in package.json to share target browsers with Babel, ESLint and Stylelint. See Browserslist docs for available queries and default value.
  • ignoreUnknownVersions (boolean): do not raise error on unknown browser version in Browserslist config. Default is false.

Plugin object has info() method for debugging purpose.

You can use PostCSS processor to process several CSS files to increase performance.

Environment Variables

  • AUTOPREFIXER_GRID: (autoplace|no-autoplace) should Autoprefixer add IE 10-11 prefixes for Grid Layout properties?
    • autoplace: enable Autoprefixer grid translations and include autoplacement support.
    • no-autoplace: enable Autoprefixer grid translations but exclude autoplacement support.

Environment variables are useful, when you want to change Autoprefixer options but don't have access to config files. Create React App is a good example of this.

Using environment variables to support CSS Grid prefixes in Create React App

  1. Install the latest version of Autoprefixer and cross-env:
npm install autoprefixer@latest cross-env --save-dev
  1. Under "browserslist" > "development" in the package.json file, add "last 1 ie version"
"browserslist": {
  "production": [
    ">0.2%",
    "not dead",
    "not op_mini all"
  ],
  "development": [
    "last 1 chrome version",
    "last 1 firefox version",
    "last 1 safari version",
    "last 1 ie version"
  ]
}
  1. Update "scripts" in the package.json file to the following:
"scripts": {
  "start": "cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts start",
  "build": "cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts build",
  "test": "cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts test",
  "eject": "react-scripts eject"
},

Replace autoplace with no-autoplace in the above example if you prefer to disable Autoprefixer Grid autoplacement support.

Now when you run npm start you will see CSS Grid prefixes automatically being applied to your output CSS.

See also Browserslist environment variables for more examples on how to use environment variables in your project.

Grid Autoplacement support in IE

If the grid option is set to "autoplace", limited autoplacement support is added to Autoprefixers grid translations. You can also use the /* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */ control comment or AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace npm build environment variable.

Autoprefixer will only autoplace grid cells if both grid-template-rows and grid-template-columns has been set. If grid-template or grid-template-areas has been set, Autoprefixer will use area based cell placement instead.

Autoprefixer supports autoplacement by using nth-child CSS selectors. It creates [number of columns] x [number of rows] nth-child selectors. For this reason Autoplacement is only supported within the explicit grid.

/* Input CSS */

/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */

.autoplacement-example {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-rows: auto auto;
  grid-gap: 20px;
}
/* Output CSS */

/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */

.autoplacement-example {
  display: -ms-grid;
  display: grid;
  -ms-grid-columns: 1fr 20px 1fr;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  -ms-grid-rows: auto 20px auto;
  grid-template-rows: auto auto;
  grid-gap: 20px;
}

.autoplacement-example > *:nth-child(1) {
  -ms-grid-row: 1;
  -ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.autoplacement-example > *:nth-child(2) {
  -ms-grid-row: 1;
  -ms-grid-column: 3;
}

.autoplacement-example > *:nth-child(3) {
  -ms-grid-row: 3;
  -ms-grid-column: 1;
}

.autoplacement-example > *:nth-child(4) {
  -ms-grid-row: 3;
  -ms-grid-column: 3;
}

Beware of enabling autoplacement in old projects

Be careful about enabling autoplacement in any already established projects that have previously not used Autoprefixer's grid autoplacement feature before.

If this was your html:

<div class="grid">
  <div class="grid-cell"></div>
</div>

The following CSS will not work as expected with the autoplacement feature enabled:

/* Unsafe CSS when Autoplacement is enabled */

.grid-cell {
  grid-column: 2;
  grid-row: 2;
}

.grid {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
  grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);
}

Swapping the rules around will not fix the issue either:

/* Also unsafe to use this CSS */

.grid {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
  grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);
}

.grid-cell {
  grid-column: 2;
  grid-row: 2;
}

One way to deal with this issue is to disable autoplacement in the grid-declaration rule:

/* Disable autoplacement to fix the issue */

.grid {
  /* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
  grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);
}

.grid-cell {
  grid-column: 2;
  grid-row: 2;
}

The absolute best way to integrate autoplacement into already existing projects though is to leave autoplacement turned off by default and then use a control comment to enable it when needed. This method is far less likely to cause something on the site to break.

/* Disable autoplacement by default in old projects */
/* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */

/* Old code will function the same way it always has */
.old-grid {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
  grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);
}
.old-grid-cell {
  grid-column: 2;
  grid-row: 2;
}

/* Enable autoplacement when you want to use it in new code */
.new-autoplace-friendly-grid {
  /* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
  grid-template-rows: repeat(3, auto);
}

Note that the grid: "no-autoplace" setting and the /* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */ control comment share identical functionality to the grid: true setting and the /* autoprefixer grid: on */ control comment. There is no need to refactor old code to use no-autoplace in place of the old true and on statements.

Autoplacement limitations

Both columns and rows must be defined

Autoplacement only works inside the explicit grid. The columns and rows need to be defined so that Autoprefixer knows how many nth-child selectors to generate.

.not-allowed {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
}

.is-allowed {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
  grid-template-rows: repeat(10, auto);
}

Repeat auto-fit and auto-fill are not supported

The repeat(auto-fit, ...) and repeat(auto-fill, ...) grid functionality relies on knowledge from the browser about screen dimensions and the number of available grid items for it to work properly. Autoprefixer does not have access to this information so unfortunately this little snippet will never be IE friendly.

.grid {
  /* This will never be IE friendly */
  grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, min-max(200px, 1fr))
}

No manual cell placement or column/row spans allowed inside an autoplacement grid

Elements must not be manually placed or given column/row spans inside an autoplacement grid. Only the most basic of autoplacement grids are supported. Grid cells can still be placed manually outside the the explicit grid though. Support for manually placing individual grid cells inside an explicit autoplacement grid is planned for a future release.

.autoplacement-grid {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);
  grid-template-rows: repeat(3, auto);
}

/* Grid cells placed inside the explicit grid
   will break the layout in IE */
.not-permitted-grid-cell {
  grid-column: 1;
  grid-row: 1;
}

/* Grid cells placed outside the
   explicit grid will work in IE */
.permitted-grid-cell {
  grid-column: 1 / span 2;
  grid-row: 4;
}

If manual cell placement is required, we recommend using grid-template or grid-template-areas instead:

.page {
  display: grid;
  grid-gap: 30px;
  grid-template:
      "head head"
      "nav  main" minmax(100px, 1fr)
      "foot foot" /
      200px 1fr;
}
.page__head {
  grid-area: head;
}
.page__nav {
  grid-area: nav;
}
.page__main {
  grid-area: main;
}
.page__footer {
  grid-area: foot;
}

Do not create ::before and ::after pseudo elements

Let's say you have this HTML:

<div class="grid">
  <div class="grid-cell"></div>
</div>

And you write this CSS:

.grid {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-rows: auto;
}

.grid::before {
  content: 'before';
}

.grid::after {
  content: 'after';
}

This will be the output:

.grid {
  display: -ms-grid;
  display: grid;
  -ms-grid-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  -ms-grid-rows: auto;
  grid-template-rows: auto;
}

.grid > *:nth-child(1) {
  -ms-grid-row: 1;
  -ms-grid-column: 1;
}


.grid > *:nth-child(2) {
  -ms-grid-row: 1;
  -ms-grid-column: 2;
}

.grid::before {
  content: 'before';
}

.grid::after {
  content: 'after';
}

IE will place .grid-cell, ::before and ::after in row 1 column 1. Modern browsers on the other hand will place ::before in row 1 column 1, .grid-cell in row 1 column 2, and ::after in row 2 column 1.

See this CodePen to see a visualization of the issue. View the CodePen in both a modern browser and IE to see the difference.

Note that you can still create ::before and ::after elements as long as you manually place them outside the explicit grid.

When changing the grid gap value, columns and rows must be re-declared

If you wish to change the size of a grid-gap, you will need to redeclare the grid columns and rows.

.grid {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-rows: auto;
  grid-gap: 50px;
}

/* This will *NOT* work in IE */
@media (max-width: 600px) {
  .grid {
    grid-gap: 20px;
  }
}

/* This will *NOT* work in IE */
.grid.small-gap {
  grid-gap: 20px;
}
.grid {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-rows: auto;
  grid-gap: 50px;
}

/* This *WILL* work in IE */
@media (max-width: 600px) {
  .grid {
    grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
    grid-template-rows: auto;
    grid-gap: 20px;
  }
}

/* This *WILL* work in IE */
.grid.small-gap {
  grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;
  grid-template-rows: auto;
  grid-gap: 20px;
}

Debug

Run npx autoprefixer --info in your project directory to check which browsers are selected and which properties will be prefixed:

$ npx autoprefixer --info
Browsers:
  Edge: 16

These browsers account for 0.26% of all users globally

At-Rules:
  @viewport: ms

Selectors:
  ::placeholder: ms

Properties:
  appearance: webkit
  flow-from: ms
  flow-into: ms
  hyphens: ms
  overscroll-behavior: ms
  region-fragment: ms
  scroll-snap-coordinate: ms
  scroll-snap-destination: ms
  scroll-snap-points-x: ms
  scroll-snap-points-y: ms
  scroll-snap-type: ms
  text-size-adjust: ms
  text-spacing: ms
  user-select: ms

JS API is also available:

console.log(autoprefixer().info())

Security Contact

To report a security vulnerability, please use the Tidelift security contact. Tidelift will coordinate the fix and disclosure.

For Enterprise

Available as part of the Tidelift Subscription.

The maintainers of autoprefixer and thousands of other packages are working with Tidelift to deliver commercial support and maintenance for the open source dependencies you use to build your applications. Save time, reduce risk, and improve code health, while paying the maintainers of the exact dependencies you use. Learn more.

postcss/autoprefixer

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"richText": "<article class=\"markdown-body entry-content container-lg\" itemprop=\"text\"><h1 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-autoprefixer-\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#autoprefixer-\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Autoprefixer <a href=\"https://cultofmartians.com/tasks/autoprefixer-grid.html\" rel=\"nofollow\"><img src=\"https://camo.githubusercontent.com/253e85a9b7dea62bb3afabae0f6a507f84f685dd389698b504660345d96be072/68747470733a2f2f63756c746f666d61727469616e732e636f6d2f6173736574732f6261646765732f62616467652e737667\" alt=\"Cult Of Martians\" data-canonical-src=\"https://cultofmartians.com/assets/badges/badge.svg\" style=\"max-width: 100%;\"></a></h1>\n<p dir=\"auto\"><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer nofollow\" href=\"https://camo.githubusercontent.com/2094056b09fb1377d966dcdb6d18bf58aa3d17d2eb40c923657224d75323df62/68747470733a2f2f706f73746373732e6769746875622e696f2f6175746f70726566697865722f6c6f676f2e737667\"><img align=\"right\" width=\"94\" height=\"71\" src=\"https://camo.githubusercontent.com/2094056b09fb1377d966dcdb6d18bf58aa3d17d2eb40c923657224d75323df62/68747470733a2f2f706f73746373732e6769746875622e696f2f6175746f70726566697865722f6c6f676f2e737667\" title=\"Autoprefixer logo by Anton Lovchikov\" data-canonical-src=\"https://postcss.github.io/autoprefixer/logo.svg\" style=\"max-width: 100%;\"></a></p>\n<p dir=\"auto\"><a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/postcss\">PostCSS</a> plugin to parse CSS and add vendor prefixes to CSS rules using values\nfrom <a href=\"https://caniuse.com/\" rel=\"nofollow\">Can I Use</a>. It is recommended by Google and used in Twitter and Alibaba.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Write your CSS rules without vendor prefixes (in fact, forget about them\nentirely):</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"::placeholder {\n color: gray;\n}\n\n.image {\n background-image: url([email protected]);\n}\n@media (min-resolution: 2dppx) {\n .image {\n background-image: url([email protected]);\n }\n}\"><pre>::<span class=\"pl-ent\">placeholder</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">color</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> gray;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">image</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">background-image</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">url</span>([email protected]);\n}\n<span class=\"pl-k\">@media</span> (<span class=\"pl-c1\">min-resolution</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2<span class=\"pl-smi\">dppx</span></span>) {\n .<span class=\"pl-c1\">image</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">background-image</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">url</span>([email protected]);\n }\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer will use the data based on current browser popularity and property\nsupport to apply prefixes for you. You can try the <a href=\"https://autoprefixer.github.io/\" rel=\"nofollow\">interactive demo</a>\nof Autoprefixer.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"::-moz-placeholder {\n color: gray;\n}\n::placeholder {\n color: gray;\n}\n\n.image {\n background-image: url([email protected]);\n}\n@media (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),\n (min-resolution: 2dppx) {\n .image {\n background-image: url([email protected]);\n }\n}\"><pre>::<span class=\"pl-ent\">-moz-placeholder</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">color</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> gray;\n}\n::<span class=\"pl-ent\">placeholder</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">color</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> gray;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">image</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">background-image</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">url</span>([email protected]);\n}\n<span class=\"pl-k\">@media</span> (<span class=\"pl-c1\">-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>)<span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span>\n (<span class=\"pl-c1\">min-resolution</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2<span class=\"pl-smi\">dppx</span></span>) {\n .<span class=\"pl-c1\">image</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">background-image</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">url</span>([email protected]);\n }\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Twitter account for news and releases: <a href=\"https://twitter.com/autoprefixer\" rel=\"nofollow\">@autoprefixer</a>.</p>\n<a href=\"https://evilmartians.com/?utm_source=autoprefixer\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n<img src=\"https://camo.githubusercontent.com/1860f22f15ba04b9bacfd5bef56205a1f4b477f26931e201ef75d917faa01093/68747470733a2f2f6576696c6d61727469616e732e636f6d2f6261646765732f73706f6e736f7265642d62792d6576696c2d6d61727469616e732e737667\" alt=\"Sponsored by Evil Martians\" width=\"236\" height=\"54\" data-canonical-src=\"https://evilmartians.com/badges/sponsored-by-evil-martians.svg\" style=\"max-width: 100%;\">\n</a>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-contents\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#contents\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Contents</h2>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#contents\">Contents</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#browsers\">Browsers</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#faq\">FAQ</a>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#does-autoprefixer-polyfill-grid-layout-for-ie\">Does Autoprefixer polyfill Grid Layout for IE?</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#does-it-add-polyfills\">Does it add polyfills?</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#why-doesnt-autoprefixer-add-prefixes-to-border-radius\">Why doesn’t Autoprefixer add prefixes to <code>border-radius</code>?</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#why-does-autoprefixer-use-unprefixed-properties-in--webkit-keyframes\">Why does Autoprefixer use unprefixed properties in <code>@-webkit-keyframes</code>?</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#how-to-work-with-legacy--webkit--only-code\">How to work with legacy <code>-webkit-</code> only code?</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#does-autoprefixer-add--epub--prefix\">Does Autoprefixer add <code>-epub-</code> prefix?</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#why-doesnt-autoprefixer-transform-generic-font-family-system-ui\">Why doesn’t Autoprefixer transform generic font-family <code>system-ui</code>?</a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><a href=\"#usage\">Usage</a>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#gulp\">Gulp</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#webpack\">Webpack</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#css-in-js\">CSS-in-JS</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#cli\">CLI</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#other-build-tools\">Other Build Tools</a>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#preprocessors\">Preprocessors</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#gui-tools\">GUI Tools</a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><a href=\"#javascript\">JavaScript</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#text-editors-and-ide\">Text Editors and IDE</a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><a href=\"#warnings\">Warnings</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#disabling\">Disabling</a>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#prefixes\">Prefixes</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#features\">Features</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#control-comments\">Control Comments</a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><a href=\"#options\">Options</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#environment-variables\">Environment Variables</a>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#using-environment-variables-to-support-css-grid-prefixes-in-create-react-app\">Using environment variables to support CSS Grid prefixes in Create React App</a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><a href=\"#grid-autoplacement-support-in-ie\">Grid Autoplacement support in IE</a>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#beware-of-enabling-autoplacement-in-old-projects\">Beware of enabling autoplacement in old projects</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#autoplacement-limitations\">Autoplacement limitations</a>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"#both-columns-and-rows-must-be-defined\">Both columns and rows must be defined</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#repeat-auto-fit-and-auto-fill-are-not-supported\">Repeat auto-fit and auto-fill are not supported</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#no-manual-cell-placement-or-columnrow-spans-allowed-inside-an-autoplacement-grid\">No manual cell placement or column/row spans allowed inside an autoplacement grid</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#do-not-create-before-and-after-pseudo-elements\">Do not create <code>::before</code> and <code>::after</code> pseudo elements</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#when-changing-the-grid-gap-value-columns-and-rows-must-be-re-declared\">When changing the <code>grid gap</code> value, columns and rows must be re-declared</a></li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><a href=\"#debug\">Debug</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#security-contact\">Security Contact</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"#for-enterprise\">For Enterprise</a></li>\n</ul>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-browsers\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#browsers\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Browsers</h2>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer uses <a href=\"https://github.com/browserslist/browserslist\">Browserslist</a>, so you can specify the browsers\nyou want to target in your project with queries like <code>&gt; 5%</code>\n(see <a href=\"https://github.com/browserslist/browserslist#best-practices\">Best Practices</a>).</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">The best way to provide browsers is a <code>.browserslistrc</code> file in your project\nroot, or by adding a <code>browserslist</code> key to your <code>package.json</code>.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">We recommend the use of these options over passing options to Autoprefixer so\nthat the config can be shared with other tools such as <a href=\"https://github.com/babel/babel/tree/master/packages/babel-preset-env\">babel-preset-env</a> and\n<a href=\"https://stylelint.io/\" rel=\"nofollow\">Stylelint</a>.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">See <a href=\"https://github.com/browserslist/browserslist#queries\">Browserslist docs</a> for queries, browser names, config format, and defaults.</p>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-faq\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#faq\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>FAQ</h2>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-does-autoprefixer-polyfill-grid-layout-for-ie\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#does-autoprefixer-polyfill-grid-layout-for-ie\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Does Autoprefixer polyfill Grid Layout for IE?</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer can be used to translate modern CSS Grid syntax into IE 10\nand IE 11 syntax, but this polyfill will not work in 100% of cases.\nThis is why it is disabled by default.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">First, you need to enable Grid prefixes by using either the <code>grid: \"autoplace\"</code>\noption or the <code>/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */</code> control comment.\nAlso you can use environment variable to enable Grid:\n<code>AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace npm build</code>.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Second, you need to test every fix with Grid in IE. It is not an enable and\nforget feature, but it is still very useful.\nFinancial Times and Yandex use it in production.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Third, there is only very limited auto placement support. Read the\n<a href=\"#grid-autoplacement-support-in-ie\">Grid Autoplacement support in IE</a> section\nfor more details.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Fourth, if you are not using the autoplacement feature, the best way\nto use Autoprefixer is by using <code>grid-template</code> or <code>grid-template-areas</code>.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".page {\n display: grid;\n grid-gap: 33px;\n grid-template:\n &quot;head head head&quot; 1fr\n &quot;nav main main&quot; minmax(100px, 1fr)\n &quot;nav foot foot&quot; 2fr /\n 1fr 100px 1fr;\n}\n.page__head {\n grid-area: head;\n}\n.page__nav {\n grid-area: nav;\n}\n.page__main {\n grid-area: main;\n}\n.page__footer {\n grid-area: foot;\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">33<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span>\n <span class=\"pl-s\">\"head head head\"</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>\n <span class=\"pl-s\">\"nav main main\"</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">minmax</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">100<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>)\n <span class=\"pl-s\">\"nav foot foot\"</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">100<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__head</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> head;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__nav</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> nav;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__main</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> main;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__footer</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> foot;\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">See also:</p>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"https://css-tricks.com/css-grid-in-ie-css-grid-and-the-new-autoprefixer/\" rel=\"nofollow\">The guide about Grids in IE and Autoprefixer</a>.</li>\n<li><a href=\"https://github.com/jonathantneal/postcss-gap-properties\"><code>postcss-gap-properties</code></a> to use new <code>gap</code> property\ninstead of old <code>grid-gap</code>.</li>\n<li><a href=\"https://github.com/sylvainpolletvillard/postcss-grid-kiss\"><code>postcss-grid-kiss</code></a> has alternate “everything in one property” syntax,\nwhich makes using Autoprefixer’s Grid translations safer.</li>\n</ul>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-does-it-add-polyfills\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#does-it-add-polyfills\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Does it add polyfills?</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">No. Autoprefixer only adds prefixes.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Most new CSS features will require client side JavaScript to handle a new\nbehavior correctly.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Depending on what you consider to be a “polyfill”, you can take a look at some\nother tools and libraries. If you are just looking for syntax sugar,\nyou might take a look at:</p>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"https://github.com/jonathantneal/postcss-preset-env\">postcss-preset-env</a> is a plugins preset with polyfills and Autoprefixer\nto write future CSS today.</li>\n<li><a href=\"https://github.com/jonathantneal/oldie\">Oldie</a>, a PostCSS plugin that handles some IE hacks (opacity, rgba, etc).</li>\n<li><a href=\"https://github.com/luisrudge/postcss-flexbugs-fixes\">postcss-flexbugs-fixes</a>, a PostCSS plugin to fix flexbox issues.</li>\n</ul>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-why-doesnt-autoprefixer-add-prefixes-to-border-radius\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#why-doesnt-autoprefixer-add-prefixes-to-border-radius\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Why doesn’t Autoprefixer add prefixes to <code>border-radius</code>?</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Developers are often surprised by how few prefixes are required today.\nIf Autoprefixer doesn’t add prefixes to your CSS, check if they’re still\nrequired on <a href=\"https://caniuse.com/\" rel=\"nofollow\">Can I Use</a>.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-why-does-autoprefixer-use-unprefixed-properties-in--webkit-keyframes\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#why-does-autoprefixer-use-unprefixed-properties-in--webkit-keyframes\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Why does Autoprefixer use unprefixed properties in <code>@-webkit-keyframes</code>?</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Browser teams can remove some prefixes before others, so we try to use all\ncombinations of prefixed/unprefixed values.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-how-to-work-with-legacy--webkit--only-code\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#how-to-work-with-legacy--webkit--only-code\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>How to work with legacy <code>-webkit-</code> only code?</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer needs unprefixed property to add prefixes. So if you only\nwrote <code>-webkit-gradient</code> without W3C’s <code>gradient</code>,\nAutoprefixer will not add other prefixes.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">But <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/postcss\">PostCSS</a> has plugins to convert CSS to unprefixed state.\nUse <a href=\"https://github.com/gucong3000/postcss-unprefix\">postcss-unprefix</a> before Autoprefixer.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-does-autoprefixer-add--epub--prefix\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#does-autoprefixer-add--epub--prefix\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Does Autoprefixer add <code>-epub-</code> prefix?</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">No, Autoprefixer works only with browsers prefixes from Can I Use.\nBut you can use <a href=\"https://github.com/Rycochet/postcss-epub\">postcss-epub</a> for prefixing ePub3 properties.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-why-doesnt-autoprefixer-transform-generic-font-family-system-ui\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#why-doesnt-autoprefixer-transform-generic-font-family-system-ui\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Why doesn’t Autoprefixer transform generic font-family <code>system-ui</code>?</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\"><code>system-ui</code> is technically not a prefix and the transformation is not\nfuture-proof. You can use <a href=\"https://github.com/JLHwung/postcss-font-family-system-ui\">postcss-font-family-system-ui</a> to transform\n<code>system-ui</code> to a practical font-family list.</p>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-usage\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#usage\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Usage</h2>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-gulp\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#gulp\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Gulp</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">In Gulp you can use <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/gulp-postcss\">gulp-postcss</a> with <code>autoprefixer</code> npm package.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"gulp.task('autoprefixer', () =&gt; {\n const autoprefixer = require('autoprefixer')\n const sourcemaps = require('gulp-sourcemaps')\n const postcss = require('gulp-postcss')\n\n return gulp.src('./src/*.css')\n .pipe(sourcemaps.init())\n .pipe(postcss([ autoprefixer() ]))\n .pipe(sourcemaps.write('.'))\n .pipe(gulp.dest('./dest'))\n})\"><pre><span class=\"pl-s1\">gulp</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">task</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'autoprefixer'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-k\">const</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">autoprefixer</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">require</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'autoprefixer'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-k\">const</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">sourcemaps</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">require</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'gulp-sourcemaps'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-k\">const</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">postcss</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">require</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'gulp-postcss'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n\n <span class=\"pl-k\">return</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">gulp</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">src</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'./src/*.css'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">pipe</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">sourcemaps</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">init</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">pipe</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">postcss</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">autoprefixer</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">pipe</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">sourcemaps</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">write</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'.'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">pipe</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">gulp</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">dest</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'./dest'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">With <code>gulp-postcss</code> you also can combine Autoprefixer\nwith <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/postcss#plugins\">other PostCSS plugins</a>.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-webpack\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#webpack\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Webpack</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">In <a href=\"https://webpack.js.org/\" rel=\"nofollow\">webpack</a> you can use <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/postcss-loader\">postcss-loader</a> with <code>autoprefixer</code>\nand <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/postcss#plugins\">other PostCSS plugins</a>.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"module.exports = {\n module: {\n rules: [\n {\n test: /\\.css$/,\n use: [&quot;style-loader&quot;, &quot;css-loader&quot;, &quot;postcss-loader&quot;]\n }\n ]\n }\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-smi\">module</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">exports</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">module</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">rules</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">test</span>: <span class=\"pl-pds\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span><span class=\"pl-cce\">\\.</span>css<span class=\"pl-cce\">$</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">use</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span><span class=\"pl-s\">\"style-loader\"</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">\"css-loader\"</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">\"postcss-loader\"</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">And create a <code>postcss.config.js</code> with:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"module.exports = {\n plugins: [\n require('autoprefixer')\n ]\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-smi\">module</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">exports</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">plugins</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span>\n <span class=\"pl-en\">require</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'autoprefixer'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span></pre></div>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-css-in-js\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#css-in-js\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>CSS-in-JS</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">The best way to use PostCSS with CSS-in-JS is <a href=\"https://github.com/4Catalyzer/astroturf\"><code>astroturf</code></a>.\nAdd its loader to your <code>webpack.config.js</code>:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"module.exports = {\n module: {\n rules: [\n {\n test: /\\.css$/,\n use: ['style-loader', 'postcss-loader'],\n },\n {\n test: /\\.jsx?$/,\n use: ['babel-loader', 'astroturf/loader'],\n }\n ]\n }\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-smi\">module</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">exports</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">module</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">rules</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">test</span>: <span class=\"pl-pds\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span><span class=\"pl-cce\">\\.</span>css<span class=\"pl-cce\">$</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">use</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'style-loader'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">'postcss-loader'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">test</span>: <span class=\"pl-pds\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span><span class=\"pl-cce\">\\.</span>jsx?<span class=\"pl-cce\">$</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">use</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'babel-loader'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">'astroturf/loader'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Then create <code>postcss.config.js</code>:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"module.exports = {\n plugins: [\n require('autoprefixer')\n ]\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-smi\">module</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">exports</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">plugins</span>: <span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span>\n <span class=\"pl-en\">require</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'autoprefixer'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span></pre></div>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-cli\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#cli\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>CLI</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You can use the <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/postcss-cli\">postcss-cli</a> to run Autoprefixer from CLI:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-shell notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"npm install postcss postcss-cli autoprefixer\nnpx postcss *.css --use autoprefixer -d build/\"><pre>npm install postcss postcss-cli autoprefixer\nnpx postcss <span class=\"pl-k\">*</span>.css --use autoprefixer -d build/</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">See <code>postcss -h</code> for help.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-other-build-tools\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#other-build-tools\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Other Build Tools</h3>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><strong>Grunt:</strong> <a href=\"https://github.com/C-Lodder/grunt-postcss\">grunt-postcss</a></li>\n<li><strong>Ruby on Rails</strong>: <a href=\"https://github.com/ai/autoprefixer-rails\">autoprefixer-rails</a></li>\n<li><strong>Neutrino</strong>: <a href=\"https://www.npmjs.com/package/neutrino-middleware-postcss\" rel=\"nofollow\">neutrino-middleware-postcss</a></li>\n<li><strong>Jekyll</strong>: add <code>autoprefixer-rails</code> and <code>jekyll-assets</code> to <code>Gemfile</code></li>\n<li><strong>Brunch</strong>: <a href=\"https://github.com/iamvdo/postcss-brunch\">postcss-brunch</a></li>\n<li><strong>Broccoli</strong>: <a href=\"https://github.com/jeffjewiss/broccoli-postcss\">broccoli-postcss</a></li>\n<li><strong>Middleman</strong>: <a href=\"https://github.com/middleman/middleman-autoprefixer\">middleman-autoprefixer</a></li>\n<li><strong>Mincer</strong>: add <code>autoprefixer</code> npm package and enable it:\n<code>environment.enable('autoprefixer')</code></li>\n</ul>\n<h4 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-preprocessors\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#preprocessors\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Preprocessors</h4>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><strong>Less</strong>: <a href=\"https://github.com/less/less-plugin-autoprefix\">less-plugin-autoprefix</a></li>\n<li><strong>Stylus</strong>: <a href=\"https://github.com/jenius/autoprefixer-stylus\">autoprefixer-stylus</a></li>\n<li><strong>Compass</strong>: <a href=\"https://github.com/ai/autoprefixer-rails#compass\">autoprefixer-rails#compass</a></li>\n</ul>\n<h4 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-gui-tools\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#gui-tools\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>GUI Tools</h4>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"https://codekitapp.com/help/autoprefixer/\" rel=\"nofollow\">CodeKit</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"https://prepros.io\" rel=\"nofollow\">Prepros</a></li>\n</ul>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-javascript\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#javascript\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>JavaScript</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You can use Autoprefixer with <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/postcss\">PostCSS</a> in your Node.js application\nor if you want to develop an Autoprefixer plugin for a new environment.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"const autoprefixer = require('autoprefixer')\nconst postcss = require('postcss')\n\npostcss([ autoprefixer ]).process(css).then(result =&gt; {\n result.warnings().forEach(warn =&gt; {\n console.warn(warn.toString())\n })\n console.log(result.css)\n})\"><pre><span class=\"pl-k\">const</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">autoprefixer</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">require</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'autoprefixer'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n<span class=\"pl-k\">const</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">postcss</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">require</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s\">'postcss'</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-s1\">postcss</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">[</span> <span class=\"pl-s1\">autoprefixer</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">]</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">process</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">css</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">then</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">result</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-s1\">result</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">warnings</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">forEach</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">warn</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-smi\">console</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">warn</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">warn</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">toString</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n <span class=\"pl-smi\">console</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">log</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">result</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">css</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">There is also a <a href=\"https://raw.github.com/ai/autoprefixer-rails/master/vendor/autoprefixer.js\">standalone build</a> for the browser or for a non-Node.js runtime.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You can use <a href=\"https://github.com/RebelMail/html-autoprefixer\">html-autoprefixer</a> to process HTML with inlined CSS.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-text-editors-and-ide\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#text-editors-and-ide\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Text Editors and IDE</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer should be used in assets build tools. Text editor plugins are not\na good solution, because prefixes decrease code readability and you will need\nto change values in all prefixed properties.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">I recommend you to learn how to use build tools like <a href=\"https://parceljs.org/\" rel=\"nofollow\">Parcel</a>.\nThey work much better and will open you a whole new world of useful plugins\nand automation.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">If you can’t move to a build tool, you can use text editor plugins:</p>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><a href=\"https://github.com/mrmlnc/vscode-autoprefixer\">Visual Studio Code</a></li>\n<li><a href=\"https://github.com/sindresorhus/sublime-autoprefixer\">Sublime Text</a></li>\n</ul>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-warnings\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#warnings\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Warnings</h2>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer uses the <a href=\"https://postcss.org/api/#warning\" rel=\"nofollow\">PostCSS warning API</a> to warn about really important\nproblems in your CSS:</p>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li>Old direction syntax in gradients.</li>\n<li>Old unprefixed <code>display: box</code> instead of <code>display: flex</code>\nby latest specification version.</li>\n</ul>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You can get warnings from <code>result.warnings()</code>:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"result.warnings().forEach(warn =&gt; {\n console.warn(warn.toString())\n})\"><pre><span class=\"pl-s1\">result</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">warnings</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">forEach</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">warn</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">=&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span>\n <span class=\"pl-smi\">console</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">warn</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-s1\">warn</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">toString</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Every Autoprefixer runner should display these warnings.</p>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-disabling\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#disabling\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Disabling</h2>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-prefixes\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#prefixes\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Prefixes</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer was designed to have no interface – it just works.\nIf you need some browser specific hack just write a prefixed property\nafter the unprefixed one.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"a {\n transform: scale(0.5);\n -moz-transform: scale(0.6);\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-ent\">a</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">transform</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">scale</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">0.5</span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-moz-transform</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">scale</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">0.6</span>);\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">If some prefixes were generated incorrectly, please create an <a href=\"https://github.com/postcss/autoprefixer/issues\">issue on GitHub</a>.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-features\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#features\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Features</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You can use these plugin options to control some of Autoprefixer’s features.</p>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><code>grid: \"autoplace\"</code> will enable <code>-ms-</code> prefixes for Grid Layout including some\n<a href=\"#grid-autoplacement-support-in-ie\">limited autoplacement support</a>.</li>\n<li><code>supports: false</code> will disable <code>@supports</code> parameters prefixing.</li>\n<li><code>flexbox: false</code> will disable flexbox properties prefixing.\nOr <code>flexbox: \"no-2009\"</code> will add prefixes only for final and IE\nversions of specification.</li>\n<li><code>remove: false</code> will disable cleaning outdated prefixes.</li>\n</ul>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You should set them inside the plugin like so:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"autoprefixer({ grid: 'autoplace' })\"><pre><span class=\"pl-en\">autoprefixer</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span>: <span class=\"pl-s\">'autoplace'</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span></pre></div>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-control-comments\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#control-comments\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Control Comments</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">If you do not need Autoprefixer in some part of your CSS,\nyou can use control comments to disable Autoprefixer.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".a {\n transition: 1s; /* will be prefixed */\n}\n\n.b {\n /* autoprefixer: off */\n transition: 1s; /* will not be prefixed */\n}\n\n.c {\n /* autoprefixer: ignore next */\n transition: 1s; /* will not be prefixed */\n mask: url(image.png); /* will be prefixed */\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">a</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">transition</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">s</span></span>; <span class=\"pl-c\">/* will be prefixed */</span>\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">b</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer: off */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">transition</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">s</span></span>; <span class=\"pl-c\">/* will not be prefixed */</span>\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">c</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer: ignore next */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">transition</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">s</span></span>; <span class=\"pl-c\">/* will not be prefixed */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">mask</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">url</span>(image.png); <span class=\"pl-c\">/* will be prefixed */</span>\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">There are three types of control comments:</p>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><code>/* autoprefixer: (on|off) */</code>: enable/disable all Autoprefixer translations for the\nwhole block both <em>before</em> and <em>after</em> the comment.</li>\n<li><code>/* autoprefixer: ignore next */</code>: disable Autoprefixer only for the next property\nor next rule selector or at-rule parameters (but not rule/at‑rule body).</li>\n<li><code>/* autoprefixer grid: (autoplace|no-autoplace|off) */</code>: control how Autoprefixer handles\ngrid translations for the whole block:\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><code>autoplace</code>: enable grid translations with autoplacement support.</li>\n<li><code>no-autoplace</code>: enable grid translations with autoplacement\nsupport <em>disabled</em> (alias for deprecated value <code>on</code>).</li>\n<li><code>off</code>: disable all grid translations.</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You can also use comments recursively:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* autoprefixer: off */\n@supports (transition: all) {\n /* autoprefixer: on */\n a {\n /* autoprefixer: off */\n }\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer: off */</span>\n<span class=\"pl-k\">@supports</span> (<span class=\"pl-c1\">transition</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> all) {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer: on */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-ent\">a</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer: off */</span>\n }\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Note that comments that disable the whole block should not be featured in the same\nblock twice:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* How not to use block level control comments */\n\n.do-not-do-this {\n /* autoprefixer: off */\n transition: 1s;\n /* autoprefixer: on */\n transform: rotate(20deg);\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* How not to use block level control comments */</span>\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">do-not-do-this</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer: off */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">transition</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">s</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer: on */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">transform</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">rotate</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">deg</span></span>);\n}</pre></div>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-options\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#options\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Options</h2>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Function <code>autoprefixer(options)</code> returns a new PostCSS plugin.\nSee <a href=\"https://postcss.org/api/\" rel=\"nofollow\">PostCSS API</a> for plugin usage documentation.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"autoprefixer({ cascade: false })\"><pre><span class=\"pl-en\">autoprefixer</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">{</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">cascade</span>: <span class=\"pl-c1\">false</span> <span class=\"pl-kos\">}</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Available options are:</p>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><code>env</code> (string): environment for Browserslist.</li>\n<li><code>cascade</code> (boolean): should Autoprefixer use Visual Cascade,\nif CSS is uncompressed. Default: <code>true</code></li>\n<li><code>add</code> (boolean): should Autoprefixer add prefixes. Default is <code>true</code>.</li>\n<li><code>remove</code> (boolean): should Autoprefixer [remove outdated] prefixes.\nDefault is <code>true</code>.</li>\n<li><code>supports</code> (boolean): should Autoprefixer add prefixes for <code>@supports</code>\nparameters. Default is <code>true</code>.</li>\n<li><code>flexbox</code> (boolean|string): should Autoprefixer add prefixes for flexbox\nproperties. With <code>\"no-2009\"</code> value Autoprefixer will add prefixes only\nfor final and IE 10 versions of specification. Default is <code>true</code>.</li>\n<li><code>grid</code> (false|<code>\"autoplace\"</code>|<code>\"no-autoplace\"</code>): should Autoprefixer\nadd IE 10-11 prefixes for Grid Layout properties?\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><code>false</code> (default): prevent Autoprefixer from outputting\nCSS Grid translations.</li>\n<li><code>\"autoplace\"</code>: enable Autoprefixer grid translations\nand <em>include</em> autoplacement support. You can also use\n<code>/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */</code> in your CSS.</li>\n<li><code>\"no-autoplace\"</code>: enable Autoprefixer grid translations\nbut <em>exclude</em> autoplacement support. You can also use\n<code>/* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */</code> in your CSS.\n(alias for the deprecated <code>true</code> value)</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n<li><code>stats</code> (object): custom <a href=\"https://github.com/browserslist/browserslist#custom-usage-data\">usage statistics</a> for <code>&gt; 10% in my stats</code>\nbrowsers query.</li>\n<li><code>overrideBrowserslist</code> (array): list of queries for target browsers.\nTry to not use it. The best practice is to use <code>.browserslistrc</code> config\nor <code>browserslist</code> key in <code>package.json</code> to share target browsers\nwith Babel, ESLint and Stylelint. See <a href=\"https://github.com/browserslist/browserslist#queries\">Browserslist docs</a>\nfor available queries and default value.</li>\n<li><code>ignoreUnknownVersions</code> (boolean): do not raise error on unknown browser\nversion in Browserslist config. Default is <code>false</code>.</li>\n</ul>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Plugin object has <code>info()</code> method for debugging purpose.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">You can use PostCSS processor to process several CSS files\nto increase performance.</p>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-environment-variables\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#environment-variables\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Environment Variables</h2>\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><code>AUTOPREFIXER_GRID</code>: (<code>autoplace</code>|<code>no-autoplace</code>) should Autoprefixer\nadd IE 10-11 prefixes for Grid Layout properties?\n<ul dir=\"auto\">\n<li><code>autoplace</code>: enable Autoprefixer grid translations\nand <em>include</em> autoplacement support.</li>\n<li><code>no-autoplace</code>: enable Autoprefixer grid translations\nbut <em>exclude</em> autoplacement support.</li>\n</ul>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Environment variables are useful, when you want to change Autoprefixer options but don't have access to config files.\nCreate React App is a good example of this.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-using-environment-variables-to-support-css-grid-prefixes-in-create-react-app\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#using-environment-variables-to-support-css-grid-prefixes-in-create-react-app\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Using environment variables to support CSS Grid prefixes in Create React App</h3>\n<ol dir=\"auto\">\n<li>Install the latest version of Autoprefixer and <a href=\"https://www.npmjs.com/package/cross-env\" rel=\"nofollow\">cross-env</a>:</li>\n</ol>\n<div class=\"snippet-clipboard-content notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"npm install autoprefixer@latest cross-env --save-dev\"><pre class=\"notranslate\"><code>npm install autoprefixer@latest cross-env --save-dev\n</code></pre></div>\n<ol start=\"2\" dir=\"auto\">\n<li>Under <code>\"browserslist\"</code> &gt; <code>\"development\"</code> in the package.json file, add <code>\"last 1 ie version\"</code></li>\n</ol>\n<div class=\"snippet-clipboard-content notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"&quot;browserslist&quot;: {\n &quot;production&quot;: [\n &quot;&gt;0.2%&quot;,\n &quot;not dead&quot;,\n &quot;not op_mini all&quot;\n ],\n &quot;development&quot;: [\n &quot;last 1 chrome version&quot;,\n &quot;last 1 firefox version&quot;,\n &quot;last 1 safari version&quot;,\n &quot;last 1 ie version&quot;\n ]\n}\"><pre class=\"notranslate\"><code>\"browserslist\": {\n \"production\": [\n \"&gt;0.2%\",\n \"not dead\",\n \"not op_mini all\"\n ],\n \"development\": [\n \"last 1 chrome version\",\n \"last 1 firefox version\",\n \"last 1 safari version\",\n \"last 1 ie version\"\n ]\n}\n</code></pre></div>\n<ol start=\"3\" dir=\"auto\">\n<li>Update <code>\"scripts\"</code> in the package.json file to the following:</li>\n</ol>\n<div class=\"snippet-clipboard-content notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"&quot;scripts&quot;: {\n &quot;start&quot;: &quot;cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts start&quot;,\n &quot;build&quot;: &quot;cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts build&quot;,\n &quot;test&quot;: &quot;cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts test&quot;,\n &quot;eject&quot;: &quot;react-scripts eject&quot;\n},\"><pre class=\"notranslate\"><code>\"scripts\": {\n \"start\": \"cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts start\",\n \"build\": \"cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts build\",\n \"test\": \"cross-env AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace react-scripts test\",\n \"eject\": \"react-scripts eject\"\n},\n</code></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Replace <code>autoplace</code> with <code>no-autoplace</code> in the above example if you prefer to disable Autoprefixer Grid autoplacement support.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Now when you run <code>npm start</code> you will see CSS Grid prefixes automatically being applied to your output CSS.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">See also <a href=\"https://github.com/browserslist/browserslist#environment-variables\">Browserslist environment variables</a> for more examples on how to use environment variables in your project.</p>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-grid-autoplacement-support-in-ie\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#grid-autoplacement-support-in-ie\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Grid Autoplacement support in IE</h2>\n<p dir=\"auto\">If the <code>grid</code> option is set to <code>\"autoplace\"</code>, limited autoplacement support is added to Autoprefixers grid translations. You can also use\nthe <code>/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */</code> control comment or\n<code>AUTOPREFIXER_GRID=autoplace npm build</code> environment variable.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer will only autoplace grid cells if both <code>grid-template-rows</code>\nand <code>grid-template-columns</code> has been set. If <code>grid-template</code>\nor <code>grid-template-areas</code> has been set, Autoprefixer will use area based\ncell placement instead.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoprefixer supports autoplacement by using <code>nth-child</code> CSS selectors.\nIt creates [number of columns] x [number of rows] <code>nth-child</code> selectors.\nFor this reason Autoplacement is only supported within the explicit grid.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* Input CSS */\n\n/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */\n\n.autoplacement-example {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n grid-template-rows: auto auto;\n grid-gap: 20px;\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* Input CSS */</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */</span>\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">autoplacement-example</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* Output CSS */\n\n/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */\n\n.autoplacement-example {\n display: -ms-grid;\n display: grid;\n -ms-grid-columns: 1fr 20px 1fr;\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n -ms-grid-rows: auto 20px auto;\n grid-template-rows: auto auto;\n grid-gap: 20px;\n}\n\n.autoplacement-example &gt; *:nth-child(1) {\n -ms-grid-row: 1;\n -ms-grid-column: 1;\n}\n\n.autoplacement-example &gt; *:nth-child(2) {\n -ms-grid-row: 1;\n -ms-grid-column: 3;\n}\n\n.autoplacement-example &gt; *:nth-child(3) {\n -ms-grid-row: 3;\n -ms-grid-column: 1;\n}\n\n.autoplacement-example &gt; *:nth-child(4) {\n -ms-grid-row: 3;\n -ms-grid-column: 3;\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* Output CSS */</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */</span>\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">autoplacement-example</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> -ms-grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span> auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">autoplacement-example</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-ent\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">*</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">nth-child</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>) {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">autoplacement-example</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-ent\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">*</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">nth-child</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>) {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">autoplacement-example</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-ent\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">*</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">nth-child</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span>) {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">autoplacement-example</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-ent\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">*</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">nth-child</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">4</span>) {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-beware-of-enabling-autoplacement-in-old-projects\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#beware-of-enabling-autoplacement-in-old-projects\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Beware of enabling autoplacement in old projects</h3>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Be careful about enabling autoplacement in any already established projects that have\npreviously not used Autoprefixer's grid autoplacement feature before.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">If this was your html:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-text-html-basic notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"&lt;div class=&quot;grid&quot;&gt;\n &lt;div class=&quot;grid-cell&quot;&gt;&lt;/div&gt;\n&lt;/div&gt;\"><pre><span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">class</span>=\"<span class=\"pl-s\">grid</span>\"<span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">class</span>=\"<span class=\"pl-s\">grid-cell</span>\"<span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;/</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;/</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">The following CSS will not work as expected with the autoplacement feature enabled:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* Unsafe CSS when Autoplacement is enabled */\n\n.grid-cell {\n grid-column: 2;\n grid-row: 2;\n}\n\n.grid {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* Unsafe CSS when Autoplacement is enabled */</span>\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-cell</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Swapping the rules around will not fix the issue either:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* Also unsafe to use this CSS */\n\n.grid {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);\n}\n\n.grid-cell {\n grid-column: 2;\n grid-row: 2;\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* Also unsafe to use this CSS */</span>\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-cell</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">One way to deal with this issue is to disable autoplacement in the\ngrid-declaration rule:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* Disable autoplacement to fix the issue */\n\n.grid {\n /* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);\n}\n\n.grid-cell {\n grid-column: 2;\n grid-row: 2;\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* Disable autoplacement to fix the issue */</span>\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-cell</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">The absolute best way to integrate autoplacement into already existing projects\nthough is to leave autoplacement turned off by default and then use a control\ncomment to enable it when needed. This method is far less likely to cause\nsomething on the site to break.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"/* Disable autoplacement by default in old projects */\n/* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */\n\n/* Old code will function the same way it always has */\n.old-grid {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr);\n}\n.old-grid-cell {\n grid-column: 2;\n grid-row: 2;\n}\n\n/* Enable autoplacement when you want to use it in new code */\n.new-autoplace-friendly-grid {\n /* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n grid-template-rows: repeat(3, auto);\n}\"><pre><span class=\"pl-c\">/* Disable autoplacement by default in old projects */</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* Old code will function the same way it always has */</span>\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">old-grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">old-grid-cell</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n}\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* Enable autoplacement when you want to use it in new code */</span>\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">new-autoplace-friendly-grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* autoprefixer grid: autoplace */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> auto);\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Note that the <code>grid: \"no-autoplace\"</code> setting and the\n<code>/* autoprefixer grid: no-autoplace */</code> control comment share identical\nfunctionality to the <code>grid: true</code> setting and the <code>/* autoprefixer grid: on */</code>\ncontrol comment. There is no need to refactor old code to use <code>no-autoplace</code>\nin place of the old <code>true</code> and <code>on</code> statements.</p>\n<h3 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-autoplacement-limitations\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#autoplacement-limitations\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Autoplacement limitations</h3>\n<h4 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-both-columns-and-rows-must-be-defined\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#both-columns-and-rows-must-be-defined\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Both columns and rows must be defined</h4>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Autoplacement only works inside the explicit grid. The columns and rows need to be defined\nso that Autoprefixer knows how many <code>nth-child</code> selectors to generate.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".not-allowed {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n}\n\n.is-allowed {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n grid-template-rows: repeat(10, auto);\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">not-allowed</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">is-allowed</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">10</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> auto);\n}</pre></div>\n<h4 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-repeat-auto-fit-and-auto-fill-are-not-supported\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#repeat-auto-fit-and-auto-fill-are-not-supported\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Repeat auto-fit and auto-fill are not supported</h4>\n<p dir=\"auto\">The <code>repeat(auto-fit, ...)</code> and <code>repeat(auto-fill, ...)</code> grid functionality relies on\nknowledge from the browser about screen dimensions and the number of available grid\nitems for it to work properly. Autoprefixer does not have access to this information\nso unfortunately this little snippet will <em>never</em> be IE friendly.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".grid {\n /* This will never be IE friendly */\n grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, min-max(200px, 1fr))\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c\">/* This will never be IE friendly */</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(auto-fit<span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">min-max</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">200<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>))\n}</pre></div>\n<h4 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-no-manual-cell-placement-or-columnrow-spans-allowed-inside-an-autoplacement-grid\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#no-manual-cell-placement-or-columnrow-spans-allowed-inside-an-autoplacement-grid\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>No manual cell placement or column/row spans allowed inside an autoplacement grid</h4>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Elements must not be manually placed or given column/row spans inside\nan autoplacement grid. Only the most basic of autoplacement grids are supported.\nGrid cells can still be placed manually outside the the explicit grid though.\nSupport for manually placing individual grid cells inside an explicit\nautoplacement grid is planned for a future release.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".autoplacement-grid {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);\n grid-template-rows: repeat(3, auto);\n}\n\n/* Grid cells placed inside the explicit grid\n will break the layout in IE */\n.not-permitted-grid-cell {\n grid-column: 1;\n grid-row: 1;\n}\n\n/* Grid cells placed outside the\n explicit grid will work in IE */\n.permitted-grid-cell {\n grid-column: 1 / span 2;\n grid-row: 4;\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">autoplacement-grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>);\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">repeat</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">3</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> auto);\n}\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* Grid cells placed inside the explicit grid</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c\"> will break the layout in IE */</span>\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">not-permitted-grid-cell</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n}\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* Grid cells placed outside the</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c\"> explicit grid will work in IE */</span>\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">permitted-grid-cell</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span> span <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">4</span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">If manual cell placement is required, we recommend using <code>grid-template</code> or\n<code>grid-template-areas</code> instead:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".page {\n display: grid;\n grid-gap: 30px;\n grid-template:\n &quot;head head&quot;\n &quot;nav main&quot; minmax(100px, 1fr)\n &quot;foot foot&quot; /\n 200px 1fr;\n}\n.page__head {\n grid-area: head;\n}\n.page__nav {\n grid-area: nav;\n}\n.page__main {\n grid-area: main;\n}\n.page__footer {\n grid-area: foot;\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">30<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span>\n <span class=\"pl-s\">\"head head\"</span>\n <span class=\"pl-s\">\"nav main\"</span> <span class=\"pl-en\">minmax</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">100<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">,</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>)\n <span class=\"pl-s\">\"foot foot\"</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">/</span>\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">200<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__head</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> head;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__nav</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> nav;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__main</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> main;\n}\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">page__footer</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-area</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> foot;\n}</pre></div>\n<h4 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-do-not-create-before-and-after-pseudo-elements\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#do-not-create-before-and-after-pseudo-elements\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Do not create <code>::before</code> and <code>::after</code> pseudo elements</h4>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Let's say you have this HTML:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-text-html-basic notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"&lt;div class=&quot;grid&quot;&gt;\n &lt;div class=&quot;grid-cell&quot;&gt;&lt;/div&gt;\n&lt;/div&gt;\"><pre><span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">class</span>=\"<span class=\"pl-s\">grid</span>\"<span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span>\n <span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">class</span>=\"<span class=\"pl-s\">grid-cell</span>\"<span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;/</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span>\n<span class=\"pl-kos\">&lt;/</span><span class=\"pl-ent\">div</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">&gt;</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">And you write this CSS:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".grid {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n grid-template-rows: auto;\n}\n\n.grid::before {\n content: 'before';\n}\n\n.grid::after {\n content: 'after';\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span>::<span class=\"pl-ent\">before</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">content</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">'before'</span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span>::<span class=\"pl-ent\">after</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">content</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">'after'</span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">This will be the output:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".grid {\n display: -ms-grid;\n display: grid;\n -ms-grid-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n -ms-grid-rows: auto;\n grid-template-rows: auto;\n}\n\n.grid &gt; *:nth-child(1) {\n -ms-grid-row: 1;\n -ms-grid-column: 1;\n}\n\n\n.grid &gt; *:nth-child(2) {\n -ms-grid-row: 1;\n -ms-grid-column: 2;\n}\n\n.grid::before {\n content: 'before';\n}\n\n.grid::after {\n content: 'after';\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> -ms-grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-ent\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">*</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">nth-child</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>) {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n}\n\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">&gt;</span> <span class=\"pl-ent\"><span class=\"pl-c1\">*</span></span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span><span class=\"pl-c1\">nth-child</span>(<span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>) {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-row</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1</span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">-ms-grid-column</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">2</span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span>::<span class=\"pl-ent\">before</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">content</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">'before'</span>;\n}\n\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span>::<span class=\"pl-ent\">after</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">content</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-s\">'after'</span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">IE will place <code>.grid-cell</code>, <code>::before</code> and <code>::after</code> in row 1 column 1.\nModern browsers on the other hand will place <code>::before</code> in row 1 column 1,\n<code>.grid-cell</code> in row 1 column 2, and <code>::after</code> in row 2 column 1.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">See this <a href=\"https://codepen.io/daniel-tonon/pen/gBymVw\" rel=\"nofollow\">CodePen</a> to see a visualization\nof the issue. View the CodePen in both a modern browser and IE to see the difference.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Note that you can still create <code>::before</code> and <code>::after</code> elements as long as you manually\nplace them outside the explicit grid.</p>\n<h4 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-when-changing-the-grid-gap-value-columns-and-rows-must-be-re-declared\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#when-changing-the-grid-gap-value-columns-and-rows-must-be-re-declared\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>When changing the <code>grid gap</code> value, columns and rows must be re-declared</h4>\n<p dir=\"auto\">If you wish to change the size of a <code>grid-gap</code>, you will need to redeclare the grid columns and rows.</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".grid {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n grid-template-rows: auto;\n grid-gap: 50px;\n}\n\n/* This will *NOT* work in IE */\n@media (max-width: 600px) {\n .grid {\n grid-gap: 20px;\n }\n}\n\n/* This will *NOT* work in IE */\n.grid.small-gap {\n grid-gap: 20px;\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">50<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n}\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* This will *NOT* work in IE */</span>\n<span class=\"pl-k\">@media</span> (<span class=\"pl-c1\">max-width</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">600<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>) {\n .<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n }\n}\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* This will *NOT* work in IE */</span>\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">small-gap</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-css notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\".grid {\n display: grid;\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n grid-template-rows: auto;\n grid-gap: 50px;\n}\n\n/* This *WILL* work in IE */\n@media (max-width: 600px) {\n .grid {\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n grid-template-rows: auto;\n grid-gap: 20px;\n }\n}\n\n/* This *WILL* work in IE */\n.grid.small-gap {\n grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;\n grid-template-rows: auto;\n grid-gap: 20px;\n}\"><pre>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">display</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> grid;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">50<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n}\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* This *WILL* work in IE */</span>\n<span class=\"pl-k\">@media</span> (<span class=\"pl-c1\">max-width</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">600<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>) {\n .<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n }\n}\n\n<span class=\"pl-c\">/* This *WILL* work in IE */</span>\n.<span class=\"pl-c1\">grid</span>.<span class=\"pl-c1\">small-gap</span> {\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-columns</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">1<span class=\"pl-smi\">fr</span></span>;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-template-rows</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> auto;\n <span class=\"pl-c1\">grid-gap</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">:</span> <span class=\"pl-c1\">20<span class=\"pl-smi\">px</span></span>;\n}</pre></div>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-debug\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#debug\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Debug</h2>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Run <code>npx autoprefixer --info</code> in your project directory to check\nwhich browsers are selected and which properties will be prefixed:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-text-shell-session notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"$ npx autoprefixer --info\nBrowsers:\n Edge: 16\n\nThese browsers account for 0.26% of all users globally\n\nAt-Rules:\n @viewport: ms\n\nSelectors:\n ::placeholder: ms\n\nProperties:\n appearance: webkit\n flow-from: ms\n flow-into: ms\n hyphens: ms\n overscroll-behavior: ms\n region-fragment: ms\n scroll-snap-coordinate: ms\n scroll-snap-destination: ms\n scroll-snap-points-x: ms\n scroll-snap-points-y: ms\n scroll-snap-type: ms\n text-size-adjust: ms\n text-spacing: ms\n user-select: ms\"><pre>$ <span class=\"pl-s1\">npx autoprefixer --info</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\">Browsers:</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> Edge: 16</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-c1\">These browsers account for 0.26% of all users globally</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-c1\">At-Rules:</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> @viewport: ms</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-c1\">Selectors:</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> ::placeholder: ms</span>\n\n<span class=\"pl-c1\">Properties:</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> appearance: webkit</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> flow-from: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> flow-into: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> hyphens: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> overscroll-behavior: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> region-fragment: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> scroll-snap-coordinate: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> scroll-snap-destination: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> scroll-snap-points-x: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> scroll-snap-points-y: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> scroll-snap-type: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> text-size-adjust: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> text-spacing: ms</span>\n<span class=\"pl-c1\"> user-select: ms</span></pre></div>\n<p dir=\"auto\">JS API is also available:</p>\n<div class=\"highlight highlight-source-js notranslate position-relative overflow-auto\" dir=\"auto\" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content=\"console.log(autoprefixer().info())\"><pre><span class=\"pl-smi\">console</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">log</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-en\">autoprefixer</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">.</span><span class=\"pl-en\">info</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">(</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span><span class=\"pl-kos\">)</span></pre></div>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-security-contact\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#security-contact\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>Security Contact</h2>\n<p dir=\"auto\">To report a security vulnerability, please use the <a href=\"https://tidelift.com/security\" rel=\"nofollow\">Tidelift security contact</a>.\nTidelift will coordinate the fix and disclosure.</p>\n<h2 tabindex=\"-1\" dir=\"auto\"><a id=\"user-content-for-enterprise\" class=\"anchor\" aria-hidden=\"true\" tabindex=\"-1\" href=\"#for-enterprise\"><svg class=\"octicon octicon-link\" viewBox=\"0 0 16 16\" version=\"1.1\" width=\"16\" height=\"16\" aria-hidden=\"true\"><path d=\"m7.775 3.275 1.25-1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1 4.95 4.95l-2.5 2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1-4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1 .018-1.042.751.751 0 0 1 1.042-.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l2.5-2.5a2.002 2.002 0 0 0-2.83-2.83l-1.25 1.25a.751.751 0 0 1-1.042-.018.751.751 0 0 1-.018-1.042Zm-4.69 9.64a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 2.83 0l1.25-1.25a.751.751 0 0 1 1.042.018.751.751 0 0 1 .018 1.042l-1.25 1.25a3.5 3.5 0 1 1-4.95-4.95l2.5-2.5a3.5 3.5 0 0 1 4.95 0 .751.751 0 0 1-.018 1.042.751.751 0 0 1-1.042.018 1.998 1.998 0 0 0-2.83 0l-2.5 2.5a1.998 1.998 0 0 0 0 2.83Z\"></path></svg></a>For Enterprise</h2>\n<p dir=\"auto\">Available as part of the Tidelift Subscription.</p>\n<p dir=\"auto\">The maintainers of <code>autoprefixer</code> and thousands of other packages are working\nwith Tidelift to deliver commercial support and maintenance for the open source\ndependencies you use to build your applications. Save time, reduce risk,\nand improve code health, while paying the maintainers of the exact dependencies\nyou use. <a href=\"https://tidelift.com/subscription/pkg/npm-autoprefixer?utm_source=npm-autoprefixer&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=enterprise&amp;utm_term=repo\" rel=\"nofollow\">Learn more.</a></p>\n</article>",
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